Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an extremely rare and very unpleasant pain disorder mostly occurring in women aged over 50 years, and is characterised by a burning pain in the oral cavity, even though no abnormalities are found in the mouth.
Signs and symptoms
Patients complain of a continuous burning pain in their mouth and tongue, the front part of their palate and, to a lesser extent, the insides of their cheeks. Patients with the syndrome often also complain of a dry mouth and changed sense of taste. The prognosis is unknown, but the complaints may last for years, although they may also decrease spontaneously.
A well-performed and careful examination of the oral cavity is mandatory.
In case of burning sensations and abnormalities of the oral cavity and tongue, infections such as Candidiasis, Lingua Geographica, Stomatitis and other mucocutaneous abnormalities have to be excluded. Moreover, BMS is described in relation to diabetes.
Additional Somatic Diagnostics
Additional Psycho-cognitive Diagnostics
- RAND-36 (quality of life)
- VAS-Pain (maximal, minimal, actual, average/week)
- PCS (catastrophising)
- HADS (fear and depression)
Whether or not somatic treatment is indicated is based on the pain diagnosis. Based on the findings of the pain questionnaires, additional diagnostics and/or multidisciplinary treatment comprising various non-somatic treatments may be necessary.
- Psychological Treatment
- Depression Treatment
- Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment
- Rehabilitation Treatment
- Tricyclische antidepressiva
- Anticonvulsiva: carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, gabapentine en pregabaline.
- local capsaicine